Jerusalem

   The conversion of Constantine I (q.v.) and his mother Helena (q.v.) to Christianity transformed Jerusalem. When Helena visited the city in 326 she discovered a tomb she identified as the Holy Sepulchre of Christ, and a nearby rock she identified as Golgotha. Constantine I built a basilica (q.v.), the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as a basilica on the Mount of Olives, and one in Bethlehem. Julian's (q.v.) attempt to rebuild the Jewish Temple was only a pause in the rapid transformation of the city into a center of Christian pilgrimage. Athenais-Eudokia (q.v.) was also a great benefactor, as was Justinian I (q.v.). In 451 at the Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (q.v.) the city became one of the five patriarchates (q.v.). In 614 the Persians (q.v.) captured the city and carried off the True Cross (q.v). Herakleios (q.v.) recaptured the city and returned the relic (q.v.) in 629, but in 638 the patriarch Sophronios (qq.v.) was forced to surrender Jerusalem to the Arabs (q.v.). Thereafter, it remained in Muslim (q.v.) hands for over five centuries, becoming a major Muslim pilgrimage site with commemorative architecture that included the Dome of the Rock. The caliph al-Hakim (qq.v) destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009. Later in the 11th century Jerusalem changed hands between the Seljuks and Fatamids (qq.v.) until the First Crusade (q.v.) conquered it in 1099. Thereafter, it became the capital of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Saladin (q.v.) reconquered it for Islam (q.v.) in 1187. The Crusaders ruled it again from 1229-1243, after which it fell again to the forces of Islam.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Jerusalem —    Jerusalem is Israel s largest city and its declared capital. It is a holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In 1947, when the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, Jerusalem was to be… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Jerusālem — (in den Keilinschriften Ursalimmu, in den Hieroglyphen Schalam, griech. und lat. Hierosolyma, hebr. Jeruschalajim, »Wohnung des Friedens«, bei den Arabern El Kuds, »das Heiligtum«, bei den Türken Küdsi Schêrif genannt), die alte Hauptstadt… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jerusalem — Je*ru sa*lem (j[ e]*r[udd] s[.a]*l[e^]m), n. [Gr. Ieroysalh m, fr. Heb. Y[e^]r[=u]sh[=a]laim.] The chief city of Palestine, intimately associated with the glory of the Jewish nation, and the life and death of Jesus Christ. [1913 Webster]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Jérusalem d'or — (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim shel zahav) est le titre d une chanson populaire israélienne écrite par Naomi Shemer en 1967 et chantée par Shuli Natan. Elle fut ensuite reprise par de nombreux artistes, notamment par Ofra Haza qui …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jérusalem — is a grand opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to a French libretto by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz which was partly translated and adapted from Verdi s original 1843 Italian opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata . It was Verdi s first… …   Wikipedia

  • Jerusalem d'or — Jérusalem d or Jérusalem d or (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim chel zahav) est une chanson populaire israélienne écrite et chantée par Naomi Shemer en 1967. La chanson fut écrite à la veille de la guerre des Six Jours et de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jérusalem en or — Jérusalem d or Jérusalem d or (en hébreu : ירושלים של זהב Yeroushalayim chel zahav) est une chanson populaire israélienne écrite et chantée par Naomi Shemer en 1967. La chanson fut écrite à la veille de la guerre des Six Jours et de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Jerusălem — (griech. Hierosolyma [das heilige Solyma], türk. Soliman, gewöhnlich Kudschi Scherif, arab. El Kods [die Heilige]), sonst Hauptstadt Judäas, im Stamm Benjamin gelegen, aber dem Stamme Judäa gehörig, jetzt Stadt im Ejalet Damask. J. lag in einer… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

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